Bursitis in ankle - causes and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention

Each bone of the foot joint is surrounded by connective capsule (joint capsule) filled with synovial fluid, which serves to protect the joint from external damage and is a nutrient, which prevents it from abrasion. When developing bursitis of the ankle, the connective capsule accumulated exudate. As it increases there is a seal of the inflamed area, which is accompanied by edema. If bursitis of the ankle is not treated, over time the movement of the joint becomes impossible, leading to disability.

Causes

Bursitis of the ankle joint1

Bursitis of the ankle develops for a variety of reasons. Often provoke the disease the following factors:

  • congenital anomalies of limbs;
  • microtrauma, ankle;
  • pathology of the ligaments of the apparatus;
  • the presence of arthrosis, arthritis;
  • overweight;
  • wearing uncomfortable shoes;
  • hypothermia; impaired hormonal or metabolism;
  • severe long-term physical loading;
  • uneven load on the foot.

Symptoms

Signs of bursitis depends on the cause of the inflammation and the place of its localization. For example, Achilles bursitis is characterized by pain in the heel region, edema of the hill heel. Bursitis is often asymptomatic, which facilitates the transition of the pathology in the chronic phase. The main signs of the disease is the appearance of the seal and pain in the affected location, difficulty walking and stiffness. As a result of injury to the ankle in purulent exudo may receive the blood. On palpation, the lesion feels fluid motion.

Acute bursitis

Pronounced symptoms of the disease, if developed acute bursitis of the ankle. He appears, usually as a result of injury or due to other diseases characterized by purulent inflammation (erysipelas, carbuncles, osteomyelitis). The symptoms of acute bursitis:

  • swelling of the Achilles tendon;
  • tissue swelling;
  • joint pain even at rest;
  • the increase in body temperature to 40 degrees;
  • pronounced pain on palpation of the heel area;
  • impaired motor activity.

Chronic inflammation of the Bursa

Bursitis of the leg, which passed into the chronic stage, characterized by the presence of scarring – a dense tumors. Usually develops after prolonged damage to the ankle. The appearance of the tubercular formations in the joint is indicated on the deposition of salts. However, redness of the tissue and pain for this stage is not characteristic and functionality of the ankle joint is fully retained. In chronic inflammation of the Bursa is observed:

  • slow, protracted course of the disease;
  • periodic exacerbation and remission;
  • on the inner surface of the joint capsule are preserved areas changed by pathology of the tissues.

The types of bursitis of the foot

Inflammation of the shoulder Bursa can cause the emergence of infectious process, if the ankle joint of the affected joint lesions get the bacteria. This is the most dangerous form of the disease which may be complicated by sepsis, gangrene and lead to amputation of the limb. The nature of the exudation, the disease is divided into:

  • serous bursitis – fluid reproduce pathogenic microorganisms;
  • fibro – liquid saturated fibers of fibrin;
  • hemorrhagic – blood vessels in the cavity of the Bursa is passed the cells;
  • purulent bursitis is the accumulation of fluid there is a large number of leukocytes;
  • combo – a combination of several types of pathology.

Some symptoms of bursitis of the ankle joint can be confused with other diseases, for example, heel spur, foot fractures and other. Based on clinical data, diagnosed the surgeon or podiatrist. In addition to the external examination, the doctor may order additional tests, including

  • puncture of the joint cavity for collection of the synovial fluid for subsequent research;
  • x-rays of the ankle below the photo to avoid cracks or fractures of the bones;
  • ultrasound examination of the ankle, which you can use to estimate the shell thickness, the amount of liquid, the General condition of the synovial Bursa.

Treatment for bursitis of ankle joint

Therapeutic methods to get rid of the bursitis, the doctor selects individually. Considered the cause of disease, current patterns, the degree of neglect. In acute bursitis is necessary to ensure peace affected limb, to save her from permanent loads. The most radical method – overlay emplastrum splints on his ankle. To reduce pain to the area of inflammation is applied an ice pack. Assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatione therapy. Drugs prescribed for ingestion and for external use.

When joining a bacterial infection, an antibiotic is prescribed. If necessary, the doctor can produce a puncture connecting the capsule to remove accumulated exudate and the introduction into the cavity of the joint a corticosteroid drugs to relieve the friction of the articular surfaces. With the ineffectiveness of drug therapy, the patient may be directed to surgical bursal excision.

How to treat bursitis of the foot at home

The treatment of this pathology is performed on an outpatient basis. The doctor prescribes medicines, appoints orthopedic appliances, physical therapy, physical therapy and other treatments, and the patient that the treatment is performed at home. With the exception of the most severe cases, for example, a strong deformation of the joint, relapses abscess and others. In the complex treatment allowed the use of traditional methods, but only in consultation with your doctor.

Medication

Treatment for bursitis medicines aimed at the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of injections, tablets, ointments to reduce inflammation, improvement of joint mobility, relieve swelling, eliminate pain syndrome. In severe bursitis requires treatment with analgesics and hormonal drugs. During treatment it is important to strengthen the immune system, so the doctor prescribes multivitamin.

Exercise

For best operation of the joint doctors is appointed medical gymnastics. The goal of physical therapy is the restoration of normal walking, reduce muscle spasm, muscle strengthening, improved well-being. Podiatrist, assigning exercises, takes into account the patient's age, type and stage of bursitis, the General condition of the patient. The load on the joint is made gradually. Movement should not cause pain. Example exercises for the ankle joint:

  • sitting on a chair, you clench/unclench toes;
  • lying on your back with knees bent tighten the abdomen and back;
  • standing, one leg bent at the knee and moved forward, locking in this position for a few seconds.
Folk remedies

Bursitis can be successfully treated if therapy in complex treatment of used folk remedies. There are many ancient recipes that help to restore health to the sick joints. Among them:

  1. The burdock root. Compresses of the decoction of the plant will relieve swelling and inflammation. For cooking you need 2 tbsp crushed root pour 500 ml boiling water, bring to boil, let it brew. After the broth is filtered, moistened gauze is applied to the affected joint. Compress the top is insulated, hold 2 hours. The course of treatment – 30 days without interruption.
  2. Kalanchoe. Fresh leaves of the plant should be applied to the lesion, top fix a bandage, wrap a warm scarf. When the leaves under the bandage dry, they must be replaced by more fresh. The course of treatment – 1 week.

Prevention

Treatment of bursitis of the ankle is a long process, so to prevent the development of this disease, it is necessary to apply preventive measures:

  • to avoid injuries, and in case of their appearance immediately consult a doctor;
  • wear comfortable shoes that evenly distribute the load on the foot;
  • during sporting events to ensure that the load on the joints was increased gradually;
  • in a timely manner to treat infectious disease;
  • to recognize the first signs of bursitis for the early detection of disease.
28.02.2018