Bursitis of the big toe: what is the problem and how to solve it?

Bursitis of the big toe refers to a rather common disease. It occurs due to the specific hallux valgus, in which there is a characteristic curvature, and often caused by genetic predisposition, but sometimes it is a result of professional activity (ballerina, sellers, hairdressers, etc.). Wrong diagnosis and delayed treatment of acute forms can lead to chronic, which will greatly aggravate the patient's condition. In this case, will only surgery and to avoid it, you need to know about the causes, symptoms and prevention of this disease.

What is bursitis of the big toe1

Cause of disease

There are many factors that trigger the development of bursitis. But literally they all affect the same process inside of the big toe joint of the foot: as a result of mechanical impact occurring defensive reaction (accumulates inside joint fluid), which leads to inflammation. Traumatic exposure may be of different types:

  • transverse and longitudinal flat feet (one of the main reasons);
  • deformity of the foot or toes at birth;
  • congenital disorder or weakness of the joint of the big toe;
  • platypodia;
  • diseases of joints (arthritis, arthrosis);
  • uncomfortable, narrow, cramped, and pointy toe shoes.

Causes accumulation of fluid in the joint:

  • injury of the big toe joint of the foot;
  • obesity;
  • fractures, cracks which grow during long time;
  • a lack or excess of calcium;
  • wearing shoes of solid material;
  • allergic reactions in the body due to changes in climatic zones;
  • autoimmune diseases (affecting the joints, if not in time to prevent the primary diagnosis);
  • infection of the thumb area;
  • intoxication;
  • disease leading to destruction of joint tissues (psoriasis, tuberculosis, reactive arthritis).
What is bursitis of the big toe2

Due to the gradual growth of a bunion of the big toe joint capsule becomes inflamed, the articular cavity accumulates fluid (exudate), which may further lead to the formation of pus. Insidious disease is that the person begins to experience pain and immediately notices a pathology only in the later stages.

Classification of diseases

Bursitis at its current share on:

  • acute;
  • subacute;
  • chronic;
  • recurrent.

Experts also highlight the stage of the disease: primary, secondary and heavy. It depends on the degree of curvature, nature of pain and the size of the bumps.

What is bursitis of the big toe3

Symptoms and diagnosis

Among the symptoms there are early and late. To early include:

  • change the shape of the joint of the big toe;
  • pain when you walk long in the foot and lower leg;
  • old shoes becomes uncomfortable, a little;
  • on a bump of the thumb to form calluses that cause discomfort;
  • fervescence;
  • swelling of the foot;
  • lethargy and fatigue;
  • nausea;
  • the reduction of mobility in the joint;
  • redness of the skin in the affected area.

For bursitis of the big toe characterized by a visible increase in the size of the joint, swelling a rounded shape and firmer consistency (may be up to 8-9 cm).

Late signs include:

  • the development of septic bursitis;
  • ongoing pain at rest and when walking short distances;
  • the change in shape of the joint — deviation of the big toe outward. This is a violation of cushioning when walking, are formed arthrosis, and bursitis becomes chronic;
  • a "stone" on her finger;
  • the foot becomes flat;
  • deformed arch of the foot;
  • appear on the sole corns and calluses.

The disease diagnosis is based on visual examination and medical history of the patient. So, in the first stage the warping angle of the joint is 20 degrees. On the second or 20-30 with the advent of brief pain (e.g. during walking), which is at rest. The third stage is characterized by the inability to wear usual footwear. In the joint of the big toe will be deviated by 30-50 degrees. The fourth stage is manifested by intense pain, limited movement, and a strong shift of the finger to 50 degrees. In addition, the diagnosis involves blood test, x-ray, puncture of the joint.

To identify the disease and yourself. You only need to do a little test: squat and pass in this position a few metres away. Arising pain and will indicate the presence of this disease.


People suffering with this disease, you need the correct shoes. Orthopedic insole-arch support and a free nose in the chosen shoes will help to make a comfortable and pain-free walking. Platform shoes selected should be straight. It is recommended not to overload the foot and decrease the amount and intensity of physical activity. Periodically elevate feet to reduce swelling occurring during the day.

Medical and surgical treatment is only administered by a doctor after consultation. If you had surgery, then the patient is prescribed physiotherapy and covered with emplastrum splints.

At the initial stage recommend the use of specific orthopaedic insoles, pads, inserts, tires, rings, extenders. Wearing special shoes. Assigned to the implementation of therapeutic self massage and iodine — salt baths for the feet. All these actions are aimed at the Board of the joint and correction of deformity. However, they should appoint only the doctor-the orthopedist, as wrongly selected treatment can only aggravate the situation.

The ineffectiveness or worsening of the patient's condition can be assigned to medical and physiotherapy. In the first case, recommend the introduction of hydrocortisone (a hormone drug) in the area of the inflamed joint. In the second case, common treatments physical therapy, acupuncture, body wraps, and mud. These methods relieve swelling in the joint, improve blood circulation and normalize muscle tone in the foot.

All the above methods are only effective in the early stages of the disease and can be used as prevention.

With increasing deformation of the joint on the leg the operation is the only way to solve the problem.